By Casson Reynolds, MSCJ, CCSA, PoliceOne Contributor

In an attempt to simplify the steps when photographing a crime scene, crime scene investigators may have lost the true meaning of a midrange photograph.

Many crime scene investigators will treat a midrange photograph as a photograph between an overall photograph and a close-up photograph, and nothing else. A midrange photograph is much more and requires a great deal of forethought.

An overall photograph is easily defined as a photograph that captures the entire scene or an area of a scene. A close-up photograph is easily defined as a photograph that captures just the piece of evidence with and without scale. As long as the photographer uses proper composition and follows Robinson’s three cardinal rules in “Crime Scene Photography” by Edward Robinson – fill the frame, maximize depth of field and keep the film plane parallel – then the photograph will depict what it is intended to depict.

In regard to a midrange photograph, the crime scene investigator must remember that its true purpose is to establish the location of specific items of evidence. As Robinson points out, “A midrange photograph is one composed to show just one item of evidence in its relative distance to a fixed feature of the scene.” These photographs should consist of the item of evidence, the fixed feature and the undistorted or un-skewed distance between.

In order for a midrange photograph to be properly composed, the photographer must follow the cardinal rules and specifically determine the fixed feature (or reference point) for a specific item of evidence.

Fill the Frame

Once the photographer has selected the piece of evidence and the fixed feature, they need to minimize the wasted space and have the piece of evidence on one side of the photograph and the fixed feature on the opposite. This will ensure the photographer fills up the frame of the photograph with only the necessary and primary details.

Maximize Depth of Field

The photograph should be clear from the foreground to the background of the photograph to ensure that the entire area the image captures is in focus and not distorting or blurring any aspects.

Keep the film plane parallel

This aspect is often overlooked or misunderstood. Draw an imaginary line between the piece of evidence and the specific fixed feature.

Place the camera film plane, eye piece, or LCD display parallel to the imaginary line.


Following the cardinal rules will ensure that the photographs accurately capture the scene in order to provide the most information for further analysis.


Robinson EM. Crime scene photography, third edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2016.

About the author

Casson Reynolds, MSCJ, CCSA, is an instructor/developer with the North Carolina Justice Academy tasked with instructing and developing courses in advanced forensics and investigations. He is a Certified Crime Scene Analyst through the International Association for Identification, has a Masters of Science in Criminal Justice from Boston University and was sworn in law enforcement for 14 years. He is the co-chair of the Training Committee of the North Carolina Division of the International Association for Identification and an adjunct professor in the University of North Carolina Wilmington’s Forensic Science Graduate Program. He has been recognized as a subject matter expert in federal and state courts in crime scene reconstruction, shooting reconstruction, bloodstain pattern analysis, latent print development and identification, and general crime scene investigations.

Your Account

Create or login to your account to enjoy discounts and rewards.

Share This
    Your Cart
    Your cart is emptyReturn to Shop
      Calculate Shipping
      Apply Coupon
      Available Coupons
      admin20 Get $20.00 off $20 off your cart total.
      adminpromo Get 100% off Free item offered by the administrator
      Unavailable Coupons
      adminsubscriptionretiredfirstpayment Get $120.00 off First payment of retired subscription when paid and added manually.
      cabinfree2days Get $90.00 off Get 2 free nights at the cabin.
      cabinfreeweek Get $315.00 off A free week (7 days) at the associated cabin in one contiguous stay at the time of your choice.
      freebassentry Get 100% off
      golfsponsor Get 100% off Free admission to the tournament with a golf sponsorship.
      jh$25 Get $25.00 off Jonathon Hall reimbursement for shirt he purchased that was too small.
      ldf1month Get $13.00 off Prorate an LDF membership for 1 month discount
      ntcvendorcomp Get 100% off This coupon entitles the user to a free vendor table at the NTC conference.
      retired10 Get $10.00 off
      retired60 Get $60.00 off This discounts your current year renewal $60 since you already pre-paid $60 towards your renewal for this year.
      spmtc Get 20% off Special 20% Off all Motor T's for a limited time!